- This paper is drawn from my book, Sex, Orgasm, and the Mind of Clear Light (Berkeley: North Atlantic Press, 1998).
- rnying ma pa
- klong chen rab 'byams; 1308-63.
- dge lugs pa.
- tsong kha pa blo bzang grags pa; 1357–1419.
- stod grong.
- bsam yas
- For a short biography of Long-chen-ba, see Tarthang Tulku, "A History of the Buddhist Dharma", ed. Judith Robertson and Deborah Black, Crystal Mirror, vol. V (Emeryville, Calif: Dharma Publishing), 254–260
- a mdo.
- rdo rje theg pa, vajray na
Death, Sleep, and Orgasm: Gateways to the Mind of Clear Light
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- the old order called Nying-ma-ba, which reached its full development in the fourteenth century with the scholar-yogi Long-chen-rap-jam
- a highly scholastic order called Ge-luk-ba, founded by the fourteenth century scholar-yogi Dzongka-ba.
Dzong-ka-ba was born in 1357 in the northeastern province of Tibet called Am-do, now included by the occupying Chinese Communists not in the Tibetan Autonomous Region but in Ch'ing-hai Province. He studied the new and old schools extensively, and developed his own tradition called Ge-luk-ba. Dzongka- ba and his followers established a system of education centered especially in large universities, eventually in three areas of Tibet but primarily in Hla-sa, the capital, which in some ways was for the Tibet cultural region what Rome is for the Catholic Church. For five centuries, young men came from all over the Tibetan cultural region to these large Tibetan universities to study (I say "men" because women were, for the most part, excluded from the scholastic culture). Until the Communist takeovers, these students usually returned to their own countries after completing their degrees.
My presentation on the mind of clear light is largely from standard Nying-ma-ba and Ge-luk-ba perspectives on the two basic forms of what Tibetan tradition accepts as Shākyamuni Buddha's teaching—the Sūtra Vehicle and the Tantra Vehicle, also called the Vajra Vehicle. (Hopkins, background, 245–46)