Buddha-Nature Timeline

From Buddha-Nature

(Redirected from Timeline)

By 100 BCE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Aṅguttaranikāya mentions the luminous nature of the mind.
Separator narrow.png
By 100 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Aṣṭasahāsrikāprajñāpāramitāsūtra states that the mind is luminous by nature.
Separator narrow.png
c.100 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Mahāparinirvāṇasūtra (which Michael Radich dates as early as the 2nd Century) mentions tathāgathagarbha and used the term ātman to describe buddha-nature.
Separator narrow.png
c. 200 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Tathāgatagarbhasūtra (as dated by Michael Zimmermann) and other scriptures later considered as sūtras teaching tathāgathagarbha were circulating and promoted the concept of buddha-nature.
Separator narrow.png
c. 200 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Nāgārjuna wrote Dharmadhātustava and praised the sphere of reality as the basis of saṃsāra and nirvāṇa. He called it 'the element' and 'luminous mind' and claimed emptiness does not negate this nature.
Separator narrow.png
c. 300 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Tathāgatagarbhasūtra was perhaps translated into Chinese by Faju.
Separator narrow.png
c. 320 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Śrīmālādevīsiṃhanādanirdeśa (which may have been circulating as one of the most influential sūtras on buddha-nature) is said to have been translated into Chinese by Seng Fani. It claims buddha-nature 'is empty of adventitious stains but not empty of its limitless inseparable qualities'.
Separator narrow.png
By 400 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Mahābherīsūtra (which was translated into Chinese by Guṇabhadra) equates buddha-nature with dharmakāya. Anūnatvāpūrṇatvanirdeśaparivarta (which Jonathan Silk dates at least before the earliest 5th century) mentions how sentient beings, bodhisattvas and buddhas are three phase of the buddha-nature being impure, partially obscured and fully pure.
Separator narrow.png
c.417 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Buddhabhadra and Faxian translates Mahāparinirvāṇasūtra into Chinese.
Separator narrow.png
By 433 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
According to Takasaki, Ratnagotravibhāga, which Central Asian and Tibetan sources attribute to Maitreya and Chinese sources attributed to Sāramati, was composed.
Separator narrow.png
c. 500 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Ratnamati, who translated the Ratnagotravibhāga into Chinese, travelled to China.
Separator narrow.png
c. 550 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Paramārtha translated the Awakening of Faith attributed to Aśvaghoṣa into Chinese and thereby promoting the concept of Original Enlightenment.
Separator narrow.png
580 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Tanyan wrote the first commentary on the Awakening of Faith, which was followed by some 170 other commentaries written in China, Japan and Korea.
Separator narrow.png
792-794 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
The Great Samye Debate between the Indian gradualists led by the Mādhyamika master Kamalaśīla and Chinese subitist led by Chan monk Mahāyāna.
Separator narrow.png
c. 800 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Yeshe De and others translate major Buddha-Nature sūtras such as the Tathāgatagarbhasūtra and Mahāparinirvāṇasūtra into Tibetan.
Separator narrow.png
By 1040 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Maitrīpa (986-1063) is said to have discovered the texts of Ratnagotravibhāga and Dharmadharmatāvibhāga in a stupa.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1045 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Ratnavajra, grandfather of Sajjana may have composed his commentary on the Ultimate Continuum.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1050 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Atiśa Dīpaṅkara and Naktso Tsultrim Gyelwa translated the Ratnagotravibhāgauttaratantra or the Ultimate Continuum into Tibetan in Yerpa, Tibet.
Separator narrow.png
1076 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Ngok Loden Sherab and Tsen Khawoche depart for Kashmir where they received teachings on works of Maitreya including the Ultimate Continuum from Sajjana.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1085 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Tsen Khawoche Drime Sherab, who received teachings on the Ultimate Continuum from Sajjana with the help of Zu Gawai Dorje as translator and returned to Tibet and taught the Ultimate Continuum in Tibet thereby starting the meditative tradition (སྒོམ་ལུགས་) of the Ultimate Continuum..
Separator narrow.png
By 1092 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Ngok Loden Sherab translated the Ultimate Continuum with the help of Sajjana in Anupama town in Kashmir. He also composed his commentaries on the Ultimate Continuum and Sajjana wrote his instructions on the Ultimate Continuum.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1100 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Marpa Dopa Chökyi Wangchuk composed his commentary on the Ultimate Continuum according to his teacher Parahita's explanation although the commentary is perhaps mistakenly attributed to Marpa Chökyi Lodrö.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1100 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Patsab Lotsāwa Nyima Drakpa, who introduced Prāsaṅgika Madhyamaka tradition to Tibet, and Marpa Dopa Chökyi Wangchuk, who is known for the transmission of Cakrasaṃvara to Tibet, translated the Ultimate Continuum. Maria Dopa also composed his commentary.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1130 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Gampopa claims that "the text for our Mahāmudrā is the Ultimate Continuum".
Separator narrow.png
c. 1150 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Chapa Chökyi Senge, the sixth abbot of Sangpu Neutok, composed his summary as well as detailed explanation of the Ultimate Continuum and carried on the philosophical legacy of Ngok Loden Sherab.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1150 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Lhodrak Dharma Senge, for whom we do not have much information, composed his commentary on the Ultimate Continuum.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1272
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Drogön Chögyal Pakpa wrote his synopsis of the Ultimate Continuum in the palace of Kubilai Khan in China.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1200 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Jetsun Drakpa Gyaltsen composed his notes on the Ultimate Continuum entitled the Unmistaken Intent of Maitreya in response to master Thinley Zangpo.
Separator narrow.png
1226 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Sherab Jungne, the student of Jigten Gönpo Rinchen Pel of Drigung compiled the Single Intention containing the 150 vajra statements of his master, thus launching an important classic of the Drigung Kagyu school.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1230 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Sakya Paṇḍita Kuenga Gyeltsen critiqued the other theories of Buddha-Nature and presented Buddha-Nature as unchanging sphere of reality in his Distinguishing the Three Vows. He argued the Buddha-nature sūtras teaching innate enlightenment are provisional teachings.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1270 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Kyotön Mönlam Tsultrim, the eighth abbot of Nartang, composed many works on Buddha-Nature including his Instructions on the Ultimate Continuum of the Mahāyāna and promoted the meditative tradition from Tsen Khawoche.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1280 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Chomden Rikpai Raldri, a learned Kadam scholar or Nartang, wrote his exegesis on the Ultimate Continuum entitled the Flower Ornament and also his history of the five treatises of Maitreya.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1300 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Lodrö Tsungme of Sangpu Neutok composed his commentary on the Ultimate Continuum entitled The Precious Lamp That Illuminates the Definitive Meaning of the Mahāyāna Uttaratantra Treatise which is aligned to the interpretation in the meditative tradition.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1300 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
One Yarlung Lotsāwa, according to Gö Lotsāwa Zhönu Pal, is said to have translated the Ultimate Continuum.
Separator narrow.png
By 1305
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Chomden Rikpai Raldri, the Narthang scholar, composed his Ornamental Flowers: A Commentary on the Mahāyāna Uttaratantra and explained Buddha-Nature to be an emptiness indivisible from awareness.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1320 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
The third Karmapa Rangjung Dorje composed his Treatise on Pointing Out the Tathāgata Heart, commentary on Dharmadhātustava and other writings related to Buddha-Nature.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1330 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Dolpopa Sherab Gyeltsen wrote his tour de force Mountain Doctrine and many other works and he expounded the philosophy of zhentong or 'other-emptiness', in which conventional phenomena are empty of self existence and Buddha-Nature is the ultimate absolute reality endowed will all qualities of the Buddha.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1340
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Tanak Rinchen Yeshe, who was a teacher of both Tokme Zangpo and Dolpopa, wrote his Illumination of the Definitive Meaning: A Commentary on the Uttaratantra in Relation to the Sūtras which presents an promo-zhentong interpretation.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1350 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Longchenpa Drime Õzer composed his Seven Treasures, Trilogy of Relaxation and Trilogy of Liberation in which he presented Buddha-Nature as empty luminous nature of the mind.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1350 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Sazang Mati Paṇchen Lodrö Gyeltsen improves the Tibetan translation of the Ultimate Continuum and writes his long and clear exposition.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1350 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Zhangtön Sönam Drakpa, a student of Dolpopa wrote his commentary on the Ultimate Continuum highlighting how the Third Turning is definitive teaching.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1350 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Gyalse Tokme Zangpo wrote his commentary on the Ultimate Continuum illuminating the definitive meaning in E temple.
Separator narrow.png
1359 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Butön Rinchen Drup wrote his Ornament That Illuminates and Beautifies the Tathāgata Heart and underscored that the Buddha-Nature teachings are expedient provisional teachings and not to be taken literally.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1360 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Dhondup Rinchen, the first teacher of Tsongkhapa, composed his commentary on the Ultimate Continuum in which he refutes certain interpretations of Buddha-Nature, which were later adopted by the Geluk tradition.
Separator narrow.png
1366 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Lama Dampa Sönam Gyeltsen composed his commentary on the Ultimate Continuum entitled Definitive Clarification of the Intent with Gyeltsen Zangpo as scribe. A synopsis containing topical outline was also extracted later. He presents an interpretation different from the position of Sapañ.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1380 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Yeshe Dorje from Minyak, a student of 4th Karmapa Rolpai Dorje and Donzhak, wrote his commentary on the Ultimate Continuum highlighting the Zhentong view.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1385 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Rendawa Zhönu Lodrö, the great promoter of Mādhyamika in Tibet, composed his synopsis on Buddha-Nature and exegesis on Kālacakra highlighting the Rangtong understanding although Gö Lotsāwa claims that he later changed his approach.
Separator narrow.png
1390 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Gharungpa Lhai Gyeltsen wrote his commentary on the Ultimate Continuum in Namkha Dzod hermitage following Dolpopa's Zhentong tradition and Sazang's outline.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1390 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Gendun Özer, a Kadampa master who is difficult to date, composed his outline and commentary on the Ultimate Continuum claiming to be different from the wordy commentaries from the past and presenting logical arguments, direct explanation, enumeration, etc. as requested by his students of central Tibet. He uses Ngok’s translation but uses Naktso and Patsap’s translation also.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1400 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Rongtön Sheja Kunrik wrote his commentary on and practice manual for the Ultimate Continuum.
Separator narrow.png
1401 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Tsongkhapa Lobzang Drakpa, who founded Ganden monastery in 1409 wrote his Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment, followed by other works which initiated the Geluk understanding of Buddha-Nature.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1420 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Gyaltsap Darma Rinchen, who received teachings on the Ultimate Continuum from both Rendawa and Tsongkhapa, wrote his commentary on the Ultimate Continuum which came to influence subsequent Gelukpa understanding of Buddha-Nature and interpretation of the Ultimate Continuum. The commentary was written at Nenying at the request of Gungru Gyeltsen Zangpo.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1425 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Jonang Lotsāwa improved the translation of the Ultimate Continuum.
Separator narrow.png
By 1450 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Bodong Paṇchen Chokle Namgyal wrote his commentary on the Ultimate Continuum and presents a interesting interpretation.
Separator narrow.png
1455 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
The 7th Ganden Tripa Lodrö Tenpa wrote his commentary on the 'Ultimate Continuum following the interpretation of Buddha-Nature by his master Gyaltsap Je.
Separator narrow.png
1473
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Gö Lotsāwa Zhonnu Pel, the famous historian, dictated his extensive commentary on the Ultimate Continuum in Mondang.
Separator narrow.png
1474 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Shākya Chokden composed his Explanation of Buddhagarbha: An Essence of Sūtra and Tantra highlighting his position that real Buddha-Nature does not exist in sentient beings.
Separator narrow.png
1539 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
The Karma Kagyu scholar Dumowa Tashi Özer, a student of the 7th Karmapa, wrote his commentary on the Ultimate Continuum integrating the points from the 3rd Karmapa Rangjung Dorje's synopsis.
Separator narrow.png
1540 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Paṇchen Sönam Drakpa, the main author studied in Drepung Loseling, composed his commentary on the Ultimate Continuum based on Gyaltsap Je's commentary at Gaden Zurkhang.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1550 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
The eighth Karmapa Mikyö Dorje wrote his The Lamp That Excellently Elucidates the System of the Proponents of the Other-Emptiness Madhyamaka and other works and highlighted the understanding of 'expanse zhentong'.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1615 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Tāranātha wrote many works including his masterpiece Thoroughly Ascertaining the Great Middle Way of the Expansive Supreme Vehicle and championed the Zhentong philosophy of Jonang tradition.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1620 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
One Taklung Chöje, perhaps Taklung Zhabdrung Ngawang Namgyal composed his commentary on the Ultimate Continuum in which he refutes various Tibetan interpretations.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1670 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Tsele Natsok Rangdrol, a Drukpa Kagyu master, wrote his treatise on understanding Buddha-Nature and ultimate reality in the context of Madhyamaka, Mahāmudrā and Dzokchen, particularly relating it to practical application.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1820 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Getse Mahāpaṇḍita Tsewang Chokdrup, a leading Nyingma master from Kaḥthog monastery wrote his exegesis on Buddha-Nature and Great Middle Way highlighting the validity of Zhentong.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1851 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
The itinerant monk scholar Dza Patrul Rinpoche composed his topical outline of the Ultimate Continuum in Zamthang monastery.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1880 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo, a leading rime master, wrote his quintessential presentation of the Zhentong philosophy in the Jonang tradition.
Separator narrow.png
By 1899 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Jamgon Kongtrul Lodrö Taye wrote his experiential commentary on the Ultimate Continuum in which he presents the understanding of Other Emptiness.
Separator narrow.png
1891 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Mipam Namgyal Gyatso, the 19th century Nyingma polymath, wrote his exegesis on Buddha-Nature called Lion's Roar and underscored his understanding of Buddha-Nature as a union of emptiness and luminosity. He also made annotation of the Ultimate Continuum which his students compiled in 1925.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1900 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Khenpo Zhenpen Chokyi Nangwa, also known as Zhenga, composed his interlinear commentary on the Ultimate Continuum as part of the thirteen great treatises, which came to be widely used in shedra curriculum.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1910 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Drakar Lobzang Palden Tendzin Nyendrak wrote his commentary on the Ultimate Continuum following Gyaltsap Je's interpretation and also his work on Zhentong on behalf of some monks of Zamtang.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1930 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Ngawang Tsoknyi Gyatso, a Jonang scholar of Zamtang monastery, wrote his treatises on Buddha-Nature explaining the Zhentong tradition of Dolpopa although Michael Sheehy considers his understanding lenient and mild Zhentong.
Separator narrow.png
1931 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Eugène Obermiller translated the Ultimate Continuum for the first time into English in his The Sublime Science of the Great Vehicle to Salvation, Being a Manual of Buddhist Monism: The Work of Ārya Maitreya with a Commentary by Āryāsanga.
Separator narrow.png
1965 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Ngawang Lodrö Drakpa wrote his Fearless Lion's Roar also known as the "Great Zhentong which highlights the Zhentong tradition of Jonang. The book came to be a classic on Zhentong alongside Dolpopa's Mountain Doctrine and Tāranātha's Thoroughly Ascertaining the Great Middle Way of the Expansive Supreme Vehicle.
Separator narrow.png
1969 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
David Seyfort Ruegg articulated and analysed the theories on Buddha-Nature in his La théorie du Tathagatagarbha et du garbha: Études sur la Sotériologie et la Gnoséologie du Bouddhisme.
Separator narrow.png
1975 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Jangtse Khenzur Sönam Kunga finished his compilation of the various Tibetan philosophical understanding and interpretations of Buddha-Nature in Sarnath.
Separator narrow.png
1983 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
The 69th Je Khenpo Gendun Rinchen composed his commentary on the Ultimate Continuum in Phajoding.
Separator narrow.png
c. 1990 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Muge Samten Gyatso composed his commentary on the 'Ultimate Continuum]] as requested by one Lobzang Tashi but the commentary is incomplete due to his illness.
Separator narrow.png
1992 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
The Gelukpa scholar Yeshe Gyatso of Chentsa Mani temple in Qinghai wrote his summary of, which is a full commentary on, the Ultimate Continuum following Gyaltsap Je's interpretation.
Separator narrow.png
2002 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Troru Tsenam completed his commentary on the 'Ultimate Continuum which is based on the transcription of his lectures.
Separator narrow.png
2008 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
The 7th Drikung Chetsang, Konchog Tenzin Kunsang Thrinle Lhundrup composed his commentary on the Ultimate Continuum entitled Words of Asaṅga.
Separator narrow.png
2014 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Karl Brunnholzl produced his tour de force on Buddha-Nature When the Clouds Part: The Uttaratantra and Its Meditative Tradition as a Bridge between Sutra and Tantra and highlighted the Zhentong tradition.
Separator narrow.png
2017 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Tsering Wangchuk published his historical account of Buddha-Nature scholarship in Tibet entitled The Uttaratantra in the Land of Snows: Tibetan Thinkers Debate the Centrality of the Buddha-Nature Treatise.
Separator narrow.png
2021 CE
Red Horizontal Vajra.png
Tsadra Foundation's web resource on Buddha-Nature was launched followed by a series of monthly conversations on Buddha-Nature.
Separator narrow.png