Buddha-Nature in the Longchen Nyingtig
Schaik, Sam van. "Reconciling Immanence with Distinction: The Buddha Nature." In Approaching the Great Perfection: Simultaneous and Gradual Approaches to Dzogchen Practice in Jigme Lingpa's Longchen Nyingtig, 63–70. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2004.
Reconciling Immanence with Distinction: The Buddha Nature
As we have seen, the conflict between immanence and distinction is present within the scriptural texts of the Seminal Heart, from the Seventeen Tantras down to the Longchen Nyingtig's treasure texts. And it is in the Longchen Nyingtig's treasure texts themselves that some attempt to reconcile that conflict can be detected in the frequent appearance of the buddha nature model. There are many direct references and indirect allusions in these texts to the buddha nature (bde bzhin gshegs pa'i snying po [sic], Skt. tathāgatagarbha).
The term tathāgatagarbha, indicating the immanent presence of the state of buddhahood within all sentient beings, is found in many Mahāyāna sutras. These sources became the basis for a treatise, attributed to the Indian scholar Asaṇga [sic] by way of the bodhisattva Maitreya, called Ratnagotravibhāga or Mahāyānottaratantraśāstra. This treatise became the standard work on the subject in Tibet, where it was generally known by a shortened form of its second name: Uttaratantraśāstra (rGyud bla ma). In this treatise the buddha nature is said to be present in all beings but obscured by defilements; however, while the buddha nature is permanent, the defilements are merely adventitious. Several analogies for the presence of the buddha nature within the defilements are used, such as a nugget of gold in the dirt, or a buddha within a rotting lotus flower.
Although the buddha nature was discussed by Kamalaśīla in the eighth century, the doctrine remained relatively obscure in Tibet until the eleventh century, and there is correspondingly little or no reference to it in the earlier Great Perfection texts. The earliest known explicit use of the concept by an exponent of the Great Perfection is in the writings of Rongzom Chökyi Zangpo (1012?-1131?):
In the higher vehicles, the characteristic of the ālaya is that it is the primordial awakened mind. The afflictions and the imprints that lead to birth in the lower realms are adventitious obscurations, like oxide covering gold, or dirt covering a precious jewel. Although the buddha qualities are temporarily hidden, their nature is not defiled.
In the fourteenth century the buddha nature doctrine was given a significant presence in Great Perfection literature by Longchenpa at the same time that Dölpopa (1292–1361) produced the texts drawing on the buddha nature concept that formed the basis for the Empty-of-Other (gzhan stong) Madhyamaka. Longchenpa's works on the Seminal Heart contain many citations from the Uttaratantraśāstra. The similarity, in the most general terms, between the Seminal Heart's ground and the buddha nature, as presented in the Uttaratantraśāstra, is clear. Both the buddha nature and the ground are entirely pure, and both are everpresent in the nature of sentient beings.
In the fifth chapter of YLG the buddha nature is explicitly identified with the ground of the Great Perfection, in the context of explaining how the saṃbhogakāya is able to manifest to non-enlightened beings while they are in the intermediate state after death (bar do):
For a person who has found the gate to this path of the supreme secret vehicle and trains in maintaining the great vows, even if he does not arrive at the full extent of the four visions in this life, the all-pervasive buddha nature remains in his heart as the luminosity of the great manifest ground. This is the five wisdoms (true expanse, mirror-like, sameness, discriminating, and all-accomplishing), the ground of arising that is the vast and spontaneously present nature.
In this passage the buddha nature is connected to the ground's nature, the second element of the threefold definition (essence, nature, and compassion) discussed earlier in this chapter. The ground's nature is here accompanied by many of its synonyms: luminosity ('od gsal), spontaneous presence (lhun grub), the manifest ground (gzhi snang), and the ground of arising ('char gzhi). It is also equated with the five wisdoms of Buddhist tantric discourse.
A slightly more specific identification of buddha nature with luminosity appears in the fourth chapter of YLG, where it is identified with the luminosity that is apprehended in the four visions of leapover as the son (bu) luminosity, as opposed to the ultimate state of enlightenment, which is the mother (ma) luminosity. This luminosity is surrounded by the samsaric elements of skandhas, sensory elements, and sense bases, and illustrated with the simile of the space inside the vase, the samsaric elements being the vase itself. The meaning of this simile is brought out by Jigme Lingpa in SN, where he states that at death, when the seal (rgya) of the body is broken, it is like the smashing of a vase, when the space inside the vase becomes one with the space outside.
Along with YLG, all of the other Great Perfection treasure texts in the Longchen Nyingtig make some reference to the buddha nature. In KGN, it is identified with innate gnosis:
The awakened mind free from renouncing or obtaining,
The buddha nature endowed with gnosis abides in one's mindstream;
Yet one gets trapped in the cage of fabrication.
Here, where gnosis (and its synonym, the awakened mind) is identified with the buddha nature in the context of its innate presence in all beings, the samsaric element, in this case conceptual fabrication (bcos pa), becomes the entrapping element, the metaphorical cage. Then in the following verse from KGN, although there is no use of the word itself, it is obvious that the buddha nature model is being used. The verse is a discussion of mind itself (sems nyid):
How is it like a treasure in a poor man's house?
Although present in oneself, one is unaware of it;
This is like the poor man not changing his state.
Sentient beings, unrealized in samsara,
Are covered by the net of nescience and concepts. How sad!
This is a direct citation of the fifth example of the way the buddha nature is obscured in the Uttaratantraśāstra. The metaphor of the net is comparable to the cage in the passage above. In NSB the buddha nature model is invoked in a slightly different context: the discussion of the dharmakãya, which I touched on in the previous section:
The dharmakãya is like water that is clear of mud;
It embodies the expulsion of adventitious impurities,
And it is the essence of all the qualities of liberation.
Henceforth there is wisdom, undeluded awareness.
Although buddha nature is not explicitly referred to in this passage, the language here is even closer to the language of the tathāgatagarbha literature than that of YLG and KGN. The samsaric elements are described as adventitious, and the treatment of the dharmakāya is very close to the presentation of the dharmakāya in the Uttaratantraśāstra. The analogy with water appears in the latter, and the characteristic of expelling the obscurations is also present there, where the dharmakāya is associated with the result, and therefore, unlike the buddha nature, is designated as purifying or casting out the obscurations. The association made in this passage between the dharmakāya and enlightened qualities is also stated throughout the Uttaratantraśāstra. Furthermore the description of mind and gnosis in NSB (which was quoted in the previous section), where gnosis is described as being like the sky and mind like air, also owes much to the Uttaratantraśāstra.
In PK, the only authorial text where the buddha nature model is employed extensively, Jigme Lingpa uses it as a way of presenting and, in effect, justifying a gradual realization. These are the opening lines of the text:
Although the buddha nature pervades the nature of beings like oil in a sesame seed,
The two adventitious obscurations should be cleansed, just as one removes something unbearable.
Here Jigme Lingpa seems to identify the cleansing of obscurations as a primary factor in the path. This is confirmed further on in the text where Jigme Lingpa employs the Uttaratantraśāstra's nine similes for the way the buddha nature is obscured, and relates these to a gradual removal of obscurations as the practitioner progresses on the path. He does this to explain why he is writing about the errors in meditation that might occur right up until the level of buddhahood itself is attained. Invoking the Pāramitāyāna, he draws on the doctrine of different phases of development-impurity, partial purity, and purity. He then refers to the Uttaratantraśāstra, which uses these phases, and links them to the nine different similes for obscuration. In this instance Jigme Lingpa directly and explicitly draws upon the Uttaratantraśāstra, not only for the buddha nature model, but also for the use of that model to justify a gradual realization in a context where the nirvanic element is immanent: the gradual revelation of the obscured but primordially present buddha nature.
Another passage from PK illuminates Jigme Lingpa's use of the buddha nature model in a different way. Here the context is the higher levels of meditative experience, which, though very advanced, still present the danger of regression into normal awareness. In this passage Jigme Lingpa discusses the experiential aspects of the ālaya and the dharmakāya.
Furthermore, when [the meditator] has emerged from the ālayavijñāna, because of the blazing lamp of the dharmakāya's luminosity, his nature remains free from elaboration. However, if he has not perfected his skill in the wisdom that shines out in vipaśyanā, then, being enveloped in the ālaya as before, that lamp of luminosity will be extinguished and no longer present.
The ālaya and the dharmakāya are one of the pairs defined in opposition to each other in NSB and many other Seminal Heart texts. In this passage there is no acknowledgement that a different model of the relationship between these two, not simply an absolute distinction, is being used, or that it is (once again) the buddha nature model. However, it is just at this point-the discussion of the transition from samsaric to nirvanic awareness-that the need to establish some form of relationship between the two becomes essential. Though this might appear to be no more than a passing reference, it reveals that in Jigme Lingpa's authorial texts, as well as in the treasures, the buddha nature is not only explicitly invoked, but is implicitly present in the discourse on the relationship between samsaric and nirvanic states.
In the second section of this chapter I showed how in the Seminal Heart the awareness that comes forth as the ground's manifestation is said to have the capacity to arise in either nirvanic or samsaric mode, and that the mode that comes into effect depends on whether awareness is recognized as being nondual with the ground. Longchenpa attempted to use this model to explain the simultaneous identity and difference of the samsaric and the nirvanic. He writes in the Tsigdön Dzö:
General delusion is caused by the stain of gnosis not recognizing the manifest ground, through which gnosis itself becomes polluted with delusion. Though gnosis itself is without the stains of cognition, it becomes endowed with stains, and through its becoming enveloped in the seal of mind, the gnosis of the everpure essence is polluted by conceptualization. Chained by the sixfold manas, it is covered with the net of the body of partless atoms, and the luminosity becomes latent.
Here the mind is conceived of as having an enveloping effect on nirvanic awareness. The samsaric is derivative in that it is derivative of the ground, or of wisdom (ye shes), without having a bearing on the latter's essence. Elsewhere Longchenpa illustrates this argument with the analogy of sunlight, which is caused by the sun but has no causal effect on the sun.Longchenpa's argument was not especially new, since it is stated in the Uttaratantraśāstra itself that the samsaric elements (the skandhas and so on) are contingent on the buddha nature, but that it is not contingent upon them. The metaphor of envelopment used by Longchenpa is also, and more directly, an example of the use of the buddha nature model.
A slightly different approach to the modes of awareness is to define the enlightened state as the mode of awareness when it abides in the present moment. In SN Jigme Lingpa suggests that the Great Perfection statements identifying discursive thought with dharmakāya (that is, the identification of the samsaric with the nirvanic), which are relatively rare in the Seminal Heart, are true only when awareness abides in the present moment:
Therefore the name dharmakāya cannot be given to discursive thought before the awareness of the present moment is unimpaired and uncorrupted. This alone is the antidote for the agent of meditation, a total penetration not chained by attachment to the view.
There is an implication here of a way to reconcile the contradictions in the relationship between samsaric and nirvanic awareness, which is that, though distinct, they may be identified in the context of awareness abiding in the present moment. For a fuller explanation of this we must again look to Longchenpa, who states the following in the Tsigdön Dzö:
Because all appearances of the three realms of samsara are at first apprehended from the aspect of the expanse, they remain connected to that aspect. Like reflections, in ultimate truth they remain in the true condition, emptiness. As they manifest in the present moment, the skandhas, elements, and so on are connected with the aspect of the kayas and wisdoms.
Longchenpa states that all internal and external phenomena as. they appear in the present moment, prior to reification and conceptualization, can be identified with the dharmakāya. He suggests that the identification of the nirvanic and the samsaric is always true in the context of the present moment, a context accessible only when, in Jigme Lingpa's words, "the awareness of the present moment is unrestricted and uncorrupted." Although Jigme Lingpa was clearly aware of the idea that samsaric and nirvanic opposites can be identified where awareness abides in the present moment, he did not, in the Longchen Nyingtig texts, extend the idea to any kind of hermeneutical purpose. There is little explicit discussion even of the more general topic of awareness's different modes in the Longchen Nyingtig; in fact there seems only to be one instance, located in YLG:
Thus the all-creating king, the natural state of the mind itself, having been hidden invisibly in the expanse of the ālaya, emerges from the primordial ground as the luminosity of the great manifesting ground, free from extremes, and abides as the ground of all samsara and nirvana. However when awareness moves away from the ground and enlightenment in the true expanse .. .it is transformed into the mano-vijñāna.
Note that the buddha nature metaphor reappears here, in a form very similar to the form in the passage from PK quoted earlier; in both passages the enveloping samsaric element is the ālaya.
The conflict between immanence and distinction raises some fundamental philosophical questions. If the enlightened state of mind, gnosis, is innate in sentient beings, what prevents it from functioning as such and releasing them from delusion? What kind of relationship does the everpresent, all-embracing nirvanic state have to the delusion of ordinary sentient beings? If the immanence of gnosis is not challenged, which it is not in these texts, two basic positions are open, either immanence without distinctions or immanence with distinctions. Although the first position could describe the Mahāmudrā and the Mind Series of the Great Perfection, as well as passages in certain Mahāyāna sutras, such as the Laṅkāvatārasūtra, the second position is a better description of the Seminal Heart, where frequent assertions of immanence coexist, often in the same text, with an insistence on certain distinctions between the samsaric and the nirvanic state of being: dharmakāya and ālaya, gnosis and the deluded mind (sems).
One solution for commentators such as Longchenpa was to turn to an old approach to this philosophical problem, the buddha nature. In this model, samsaric and nirvanic are conceived of as inhabiting a relationship between an obscuring agent and that which is obscured. The obscuring agent is adventitious with no inherent reality, while the obscured is the essential reality. The fact of obscuration explains why the nirvanic fails to manifest at all times.
Yet it is clear that neither the treasure texts nor Jigme Lingpa's authorial works in the Longchen Nyingtig are directly concerned with the actual philosophical problem of how to reconcile the contradictions in the relationship of samsaric and nirvanic elements. In his Namkhyen Shingta Jigme Lingpa dealt more discursively with this topic, though from my reading of the text, he does not seem to go beyond the interpretations offered by Longchenpa. Nonetheless the buddha nature is a strong presence in the Longchen Nyingtig. Although it is not discussed explicitly with the same depth of thought and awareness of the philosophical problems that is found in certain parts of Longchenpa's work, the buddha nature model does appear frequently and in contexts where it works to reconcile the problematic relationship between the samsaric and the nirvanic. It is apparent that Jigme Lingpa considered that this relationship had already found a natural resolution in the buddha nature model, which appears most frequently in the treasure texts, where it is invoked from within the nonpersonal, scriptural voice of the those texts rather than the interpretative voice of the authorial commentary.
- These texts are discussed in Seyfort Ruegg 1969, pp. 7-18.
- Mahāyānottaratantraśāstra (Ratnagotravibhāga), Tib. Theg pa chen po rgyud bla ma'i bstan bcos (Peking bsTan 'gyur vol. 108). The Sanskrit version is also extant (E. H. Johnston 1950), and an English translation from the Sanskrit has been made (Jikido Takasaki 1966). Obermiller 1931 and Holmes 1985 are translations from the Tibetan into English. In the following pages I have used the canonical Tibetan text rather than the Sanskrit because it is the use of the text in the indigenous Tibetan literature that is of relevance here. The translations are my own.
- The discussion by Kamalaśīla is in his Madhyamakāloka (Seyfort Ruegg 1981, pp. 94-95).
- The passage is cited in Karmay 1988, p. 179 (the translation here is mine): Theg pa chen po'i tshul la 'jug pa ff. 137b—38a: theg pa gong ma'i tshul las ni/ kun gzhi'i mtshan nyid gdod ma nas byang chub sems zhes bya bal nyon mongs pa dang gnas ngan len gyi bag chags ni glo bur gyi dri ma ste gser g.yas g.yogs pa'am/ nor bu rin po che 'dam du sbubs pa bzhin yon tan cung zad mi snang bar zad de/ rang bzhin nyams par byas pa med do/
- YLG = rDzogs pa chen po kun tu bzang po ye shes klong gi rgyud (The Great Perfection Tantra of the Expanse of Samantabhadra's Wisdom)
- YLG pp. 89—90: 'di ltar gsang ba mchog gi theg pa 'di'i lam gyi sgo mthong zhing dam tshig chen po'i gnas la bslab pa dag ni gal te skye ba 'di la snang bzhi tshad du ma phyin kyang/ khams bde gshegs snying po'i khyab byed rang gi snying kha na gzhi snang ba chen po'i 'od gsal chos kyi dbyings dang/ me long lta bu dang/ mnyam pa nyid dang/ so sor rtog pa dang/ bya grub pa dang lnga'i ye shes rang bzhin lhun grub chen po'i 'char gzhir bzhugs pa
- YLG p. 86.
- SN = Gol shor tshar gcod seng ge'i ngar ro (The Lion's Roar That Destroys the Deviations of Renunciants Meditating on the Seminal Heart)
- SN p. 562.
- KGN = Kun tu bzangpo dgongs nyams (Experiencing the Enlightened Mind of Samantabhadra)
- KGN p. 112: de ltar spangs thob bral ba'i byang chub sems/ bde bar gshegs pa rig pa'i snying po can/ rgyud la gnas kyang bcos ma'i gzeb kyis beings/
- KGN p. 107: ji ltar dbul po'i khyim gyi gter bzang po/ rang la yod kyang de nyid ma rig pas/ dbul po'i rang bzhin gyur ba med pa ltar/ ma rig rtog pa'i dra bar 'thums ches pa'i/ ma rtogs 'khor ba'i sems can snying re rje/
- Uttaratantraśāstra (Peking bsTan 'gyur vol. 108, 26-2-5Íf.):
- If in the ground under a poor man's house
- There were an inexhaustible treasure,
- That man would not know of its presence,
- Nor could the treasure say "I am here."
- Just so, the treasure within one's mindstream
- Is stainless, needing to neither be added to nor cleansed.
- However, if this is not realized, there is the suffering of poverty.
- / ji ltar mi dbul khyim nang sa og nas/ / mi zad pa yi gter ni yod gyur la/ /mi des de ma shes shing gter de yang/ / de la nga 'dir yod ces mi smra Itar/ / de bzhin yid kyi nang rgyud rin chen gter/ / dri med bzhag dang bsal med chos nyid kyang/ / ma rtogs pas na dbul ba'i sdug bsngal ni/
- NSB pp. 116—17: chos sku rnyog ma dangs pa'i chu dang 'dra/ glo bur dri ma spangs pa'i bdag nyid can/ mam grol yon tan kun gyi ngo bo ste/ phyin chad 'khrul mi shes pa'i ye shes yin/
- Uttaratantraśāstra (Peking bsTan 'gyur vol. 108, 27—3—yd.):
- The purification of adventitious defilements,
- Such as attachment, is like the water of a lake.
- It is like a pool of pure water
- Because it is free from the dirt of desire and hatred.
- / chu mtsho sogs bzhin 'dod chags sogs/ / glo bur nyon mongs dag pa ni/ .../ chu dag rdzing dang mtshungs pa yin/ / zhe sdang skrag can las grol bas/
- The purification of adventitious defilements,
- This distinction can be found in an earlier source, the Śrīmālāsūtra (Brown 1991, p. 248).
- Compare NSB p. 118 with the following from the Uttaratantraśāstra (Peking bsTan 'gyur vol. 108 25-2-iff.):
- The wrong mode of thought
- Is like the element of air.
- The nature is like the element of space,
- Without a nature and abiding nowhere.
- / tshul bzhin ma yin yid byed ni/ / rlung gi khams dang dra bar lta/ / rang bzhin nam mkha' khams bzhin du/ / rang bzhin can min gnas pa med/
- The wrong mode of thought
- PK = rGyab brten padma dkar po (The White Lotus)
- He also makes quite prominent use of the buddha nature in chapter 11 of the Yönten Dzö, which opens with the following verse (p. 96):
- In the second wheel the Conqueror taught the three [gates of] liberation to his circle.
- The essence of these is reflexive awareness:
- In sentient beings it is known as the buddha nature,
- To rest in that nature is the Great Perfection.
- // rgyal bas 'khor lo bar par rnam thar gsum/ / bstan bya'i ngo bo so so rang rig nyid/ / sems can khams la bde gshegs snying po ru/ / rang bzhin bzhugs la rdzogs pa chen por grags/
- In the second wheel the Conqueror taught the three [gates of] liberation to his circle.
- PK p. 464: bde gshegs snying po gro ba'i khams la ti/ mar bzhin du khyab gdal yang/ / glo bur sgrib gnyis rtag tu mi bzod bral bya'i tshul du nogs pa dag/
- "Two adventitious obscurations" refers to the standard distinction of two forms of obscuration, emotional (nyon mongs pa'i sgrib pa) and cognitive (shes bya'i sgrib pa). Cf. for example Uttaratantraśāstra (Peking bsTan 'gyur vol. 108, 27—3—2); translation in Holmes 1985, p. 77.
- PK pp. 496-97.
- The verses from the Uttaratantraśāstra, that Jigme Lingpa quotes following the passage, which deal with the stains of the seven impure and three pure stages, are actually quoted twice in PK—the other occurrence is near the beginning of the text: PK pp. 467—68. (The passage is in the Uttaratantraśāstra,, Peking bsTan 'gyur vol. 108, 26-6-5ÍF.)
- PK pp. 505—6: kun gzhi'i rnam shes kyi sbubs su chud pa la chos sku'i 'od gsal gyi mar mer rang 'bar bas rang bzhin gyi spros pa dang bral bar gnas so/ / de lta na'ang lhag mthong gsal ba'i ye shes kyi rtsal ma rdzogs pas sngar gyi kun gzhi'i sbubs su 'thums nas 'od gsal gyi mar me de bi shi nas mi 'dug go/
- Tsigdön Dzö pp. 126—27: dang po ni spyi'i 'khrul gzhi snang de rig pas rang ngo ma shes pa'i dri mas rig pa nyid 'khrul bar spags pas shes bya rig pa dri ma med pa nyid kyang dri bcas su song ste sems kyi rgyar 'thums nas ngo bo ka dag gi rig pa rtog pas spags te yid drug gis beings pas lus rdul phran cha med kyi dra bar tshud de 'od gsal bag la zha'o/
- This simile appears in Tsigdön Dzö p. 228. He argues that one should understand that the ālaya and dharmakāya are "distinct conceptual isolates of a single essence." (ngo bo gcig la Idog pa tha dad du song ba). The same argument appears in Khandro Yangtig vol. II, p. 212 and Zabmo Yangtig vol. II, p. 267ff.
- Uttaratantraśāstra (Peking bsTan 'gyur vol. 108, 25-i-6ff.):
- Just as space is everywhere
- [Yet] subtle and completely untainted,
- So in all beings
- This abides, [yet] is completely untainted.
- Earth rests on water, water on air,
- And air rests on space,
- [Yet] space does not rest
- On the elements of earth, water, or air.
- Just so, the skandhas, sense bases, and sense faculties
- Are based on karma and the defilements,
- While karma and the defilements
- Are always based on the wrong way of thinking.
- The wrong way of thinking
- Rests fully on the purity of mind,
- [Yet] the purity of mind does not rest on any of those phenomena.
- / ji ltar nam mkha' kun song ba/ / phra zhing nye bar gos pa med/ / de bzhin sems can thams cad la/ / gnas 'di nye bar gos pa med/ ... / sa ni chu la chu rlung la/ / rlung ni mkha' la rab tu gnas/ / mkha' ni rlung dang chu dang/ / sa yi khams la gnas ma yin/ / de bzhin phung po khams dbang rnams/ / las dang nyon mongs dag la gnas/ / las dang nyon mongs tshul bzhin min/ / yid byed la rtag tu gnas/ / tshul bzhin ma yin yid byed ni/ / sems kyi dag pa la rab gnas/ / sems kyi rang bzhin chos rnams ni/ / thams cad la yang gnas pa med/
- Just as space is everywhere
- SN pp. 553-54: rnam rtog la chos sku'i ming 'dogs mi snga bar da ltar gyi shes pa gra ma nyams shing zur ma chag pa 'di ka la sgom mkhan gyi gnyen po dang/ lta ba'i zhen pas ma beings par zang thal
- Tsigdön Dzö p. 142: khams gsum 'khor ba'i snang ba thams cad dang po yang dbyings kyi cha la bzung bas de'i cha re sbyar du yod pas kyang gzugs brnyan ltar don la chos nyid stong par gnas la da ltar snang dus phung po dang 'byung ba las sogs pa sku dang ye shes kyi char sbyar te/
- SN p. 553: da ltar gyi shes pa gra ma nyams shing zur ma chag pa
- YLG pp. 83—84: de'i phyir kun rje rgyal po sems kyi gnas lugs nyid kun gzhi'i klong na bltar mi mngon par gab nas 'khor 'das thams cad kyi gzhir gnas pa dang/ gzhi thog nas gzhi snang ba chen po'i 'od gsal mu mtha' med par shar kyang/ yul dang ma 'brel/ rang sa ma rmugs/ 'dzin pas ma slad/ bzung bas ma beings/ shes dang shes bya'i sgrib pa mtha' dag spangs te chos sku'i dbyings la byang chub pa dang/ gzhi las shes pa g.yos te yi kyi rnam shes su gnas gyur/
- Namkhyen Shingta pp. 583-86, 587-88, 648.