On the Ritual Use of Ch'an Portraiture in Medieval China

From Buddha-Nature

< Articles(Redirected from On the Ritual Use of Ch’an Portraiture in Medieval China)

LibraryArticlesOn the Ritual Use of Ch'an Portraiture in Medieval China

On the Ritual Use of Ch'an Portraiture in Medieval China
Article
Article


Citation: Foulk, T. Griffith, and Robert H. Sharf. ‘‘On the Ritual Use of Ch’an Portraiture in Medieval China.’’ (In French.) Cahiers d’Extrême-Asie 7 (1993–1994): 149–219. https://www.persee.fr/doc/asie_0766-1177_1993_num_7_1_1064.

Article Summary

L'article traite d'un genre de portraits de moines Zen appelé chinzō, genre qui fleurit sous les Sung et les Yuan, et fut introduit au Japon à l'époque de Kamakura. On connaît au Japon environ soixante-dix chinzō chinois et japonais datant du treizième au seizième siècle, considérés comme "Trésors nationaux" ou "propriétés culturelles importantes", mais qui ne représentent qu'un dizième du nombre total de portraits connus. Les portraits relevant de ce genre sont assez stéréotypés, et représentent en général un moine assis en sur une chaise haute en position du lotus. Souvent représenté de trois-quarts, mais parfois aussi de face, il est vêtu d'un habit de cérémonie, et tient dans sa main droite un attribut de son autorité, d'ordinaire un bâton, un sceptre ou un chasse-mouches. Certains chinzō représentent aussi le moine assis ou debout dans un paysage. Enfin, ils comportent généralement un "éloge" en vers et une dédicace.
      S'interrogeant sur la fonction religieuse de ces portraits, Griffith Foulk et Robert Sharf sont amenés à remettre en question l'idée que les chinzō servaient à authentifier la transmission de maître à disciple. Une étude approfondie des sources montre que la définition somme toute moderne des chinzō, visant à définir un genre limité dans le domaine de l'histoire de l'art, a fonctionné dans les faits de façon étroitement normative, alors que le terme désignait à l'origine une catégorie beaucoup plus large de portraits. Conduits de la sorte à étudier la construction moderne du genre des chinzō, les auteurs en arrivent à poser un certain nombre de questions théoriques et méthodologiques qui devraient avoir un certain impact sur l'histoire de l'art asiatique. (Foulk and Sharf, introduction, 149)

References

Chinese Buddhist Canonical Collections

Taishō shinshū daizōkyō. Ed. Takakusu Junjirō and Watanabe Kaigyoku. 100 vols. Tōkyō: Taishō issaikyō kankōkai, 1924- 1932. Texts are indicated by "T.", followed by the text number, volume, page, register (a, b, or c), and, when appropriate, the line number(s).

Hsü tsang-ching. 150 vols. Taipei: Chung-kuo fo-chiao hui, 1968. (This is a reprint of the Dainippon zokuzōkyō, ed. Nakano Tatsue, Kyōto: Zōkyō shoin, 1905-1912.) Texts are indicated by "HTC", followed by the volume number, page, register (a, b, c, or d), and, when appropriate, the line numbers).

Other Sources

  • Acker, William Reynolds Beal. 1954. Some T'ang and Pre-T'ang Texts on Chinese Painting. Institutum Sinologicum Lugduno Batavum, vol. 8 Leiden: E. J. Brill.
  • Blofeld, John. 1972. The Wheel of Life: The Autobiography of a Western Buddhist. 2nd ed. London: Rider and Company.
  • Brinker, Helmut. 1987a. Zen in the Art of Painting. Translated by George Campbell. London and New York: Arkana. First published in German as Zen in der Kunst des Malens, Bern, Munchen: Otto Wilhelm Barth Verlag, 1985.
  • _____. 1987b. "Body, Relic and Image in Zen Buddhist Portraiture." In Kokusai kōryō bijutsushi kenkyūkai, dairokkai kokusai shinpojiumu — shōzō, 46-61. Kyōto: Kokusai kōryū bijutsushi kenkyūkai.
  • Bush, Susan, and Hsio-yen Shih, eds. 1985. Early Chinese Texts on Painting. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Cahill, James. 1961. "The Six Laws and How to Read Them." Ars Orientalis 4: 372-381.
  • Chen Shih-hsiang. 1961. Biography ofKu K'ai-chih. Chinese Dynastic Histories Translations, no. 2. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Collcutt, Martin. 1981. Five Mountains: The Rinzai Zen Monastic Institution in Medieval Japan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Conze, Edward, trans. 1975. The Perfection of Wisdom in Eight Thousand Lines and its Verse Summary. Bolinas, Ca: Four Seasons Foundation. First printing 1973.
  • Demiéville, Paul. 1965 "Momies d'Extrême-Orient." Journal des Savants, troisieme centenaire, 144-170. Reprinted in Choix d'études sinologiques, Leiden: Brill 1972: 407-432.
  • Demiéville, Paul, and Jacques May, eds. 1929-. Hōbōgirin: Dictionnaire encyclopédique du bouddhisme d'après les sources chinoises et japonaises. 6 vols. to date. Tōkyō: Maison Franco-Japonaise.
  • Durt, Hubert. 1967. "Note sur l'origine de l'Anavalokitamūrdhatā." Indogaku bukkyōgaku kenkyū 16(1): 450-443.
  • Ebrey, Patricia. 1990. Chu Hsi's Family Rituals: A Twelfth-Century Chinese Manual for the Performance of Cappings, Weddings, Funerals, and Ancestral Rites. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Faure, Bernard. 1987. La volonté d'orthodoxie dans le bouddhisme chinois. Paris: Editions du C.N.R.S.
  • _____. 1989. Le bouddhisme Ch'an en mal d'histoire: Genèse d'une tradition religieuse dans la Chine des T'ang. Publications de l'Ecole Française d'Extrême-Orient, vol. 158. Paris: Ecole Française d'Extrême-Orient.
  • _____. 1991. The Rhetoric of Immediacy: A Cultural Critique of Chan/Zen Buddhism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • _____. 1992 "Relics and Flesh Bodies: The Creation of Ch'an Pilgrimage Sites." In Pilgrims and Sacred Sites in China, ed. Susan Naquin and Chün-fang Yü, 150-189. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Fong, Wen. 1966. "Ch'i-yün-shen-tung: 'Vitality, Harmonious Manner and Aliveness.'" Oriental Art, n.s. 12: 159-164.
  • _____. 1984 "Images of the Mind." In Images of the Mind: Selections from the Edward L. Elliott Family and John B. Elliott Collections of Chinese Calligraphy and Painting at The Art Museum, Princeton University, by Wen C. Fong, Alfreda Murck, Shou-chien Shih, Pao-chen Ch'en, and Jan Stuart, 1-212. Princeton: The Art Museum, Princeton University.
  • Fontein, Jan, and Money L. Hickman. 1970. Zen Painting and Calligraphy. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts.
  • Foulk, T. Griffith. 1987. "The 'Ch'an School' and Its Place in the Buddhist Monastic Tradition." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan.
  • _____. 1993. "Myth, Ritual, and Monastic Practice in Sung Ch'an Buddhism." In Religion and Society in T'ang and Sung China, 700-1300, ed. Peter N. Gregory and Patricia B. Ebrey. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
  • Freedberg, David. 1989. The Power of Images: Studies in the History and Theory of Response. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.
  • Gallagher, Louis J. 1953. China in the Sixteenth Century: The Journals of Matthew Ricci. New York: Random House. First edition: 1942.
  • Groot, J. J. M. de. 1982. The Religious System of China: Its Ancient Forms, Evolution, History and Present Aspect; Manners, Customs and Social Institutions Connected Therewith. Taipei: Southern Materials Center, Inc. Originally published: Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1892.
  • Hamada Ryū. 1986. "Shōichi kokushi to Tōfukuji" Exhibition, Nara National Museum 1986, 13-14.
  • Hay, John. 1983. "Values and History in Chinese Painting, I: Hsieh Ho Revisited." RES 6: 72-111.
  • _____. 1984. "Values and History in Chinese Painting, II: The Hierarchic Evolution of Structure." RES 7/8: 102-136.
  • Hirabayashi Fumio. 1988. San Tendai Godaisan ki: kōhon narabi ni kenkyū. Tōkyō: Kazama.
  • Honda Wataru. 1978. Eki. Chūgoku kotensen 2. 2 vols. Tōkyō: Asahi shinbunsha.
  • Hu Shih. 1968. Shen-hui ho-shang i-chi — fu Hu hsien-sheng tsui-hou-te yen-chiu. Ed. Ma Chun-wu. Taipei: Hu Shih chi-nien kuan.
  • Hurvitz, Leon. 1956. "Wei Shou, Treatise on Buddhism and Taoism: An English Translation of the Original Chinese Text of Wei-shu CXIV and the Japanese Annotation of Tsukamoto Zenryū." In Yün-kang: The Buddhist Cave-Temples of the Fifth Century A.D. in North China, vol. 16, 25-103. Kyoto: Kyoto University Institute of Humanistic Studies.
  • _____. 1980. Chih-i (538-597), an Introduction to the Life and Ideas of a Chinese Buddhist Monk. Mélanges Chinois et Bouddhiques, vol. 12. Bruxelles: Institut Belge des Hautes Etudes Chinoises. First printing 1962.
  • Ide Seinosuke. 1986. "Manzaiji no kenshin raifuku zō." Bijutsushi 119, vol. 35 (1): 42-56.
  • _____. 1989. "Chūhō Myōhon jisanzō o megutte." Bijutsu kenkyū 343 (Feb.): 99-116.
  • Iijima Isamu. 1957. "Chinzō ni tsuite." Museum 80: 17-20.
  • Ishida Jūshi, ed. 1972. Kamakura bukkyō seiritsu no kenkyū: Shunjō risshi. Kyōto: Hōzōkan.
  • Itō Shirō. 1987. "Shoki Tendaishū no shōzō chōkoku — Enchin zō o chūshin ni." In Kokusai kōryū bijutsushi kenkyūkai, dairokkai kokusai shinpojiumu — shōzō, 22-28. Kyōto: Kokusai kōryū bijutsushi kenkyūkai.
  • Jan Yün-hua. 1966. A Chronicle of Buddhism in China, 581-960 A.D. Santiniketan: Visva-Bharati.
  • Jorgensen, John. 1987. "The 'Imperial' Lineage of Ch'an Buddhism: The Role of Confucian Ritual and Ancestor Worship in Ch'an's Search for Legitimation in the Mid-T'ang Dynasty." Papers on Far Eastern History 35 (Canberra: The Australian National University Department of Far Eastern History), 89-133.
  • Kagamishima Genryū, Satō Tatsugen, and Kosaka Kiyū. 1972. Yakuchū: Zen'en shingi. Tōkyō: Sōtōshū shūmuchō.
  • Kanazawa Hiroshi. 1979. Japanese Ink Painting: Early Zen Masterpieces. Translated and adapted by Barbara Ford. Tōkyō: Kodansha International. Originally published in Japanese under the title, Shoki suibokuga, as vol. 69 in the series, Nihon no bijutsu, Tōkyō: Shibundō, 1972.
  • Karlgren, Bernhard. 1966. Grammata Serica: Script and Phonetics in Chinese and Sino-Japanese. Ch'eng-wen Publishing Company. First published in Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, 12 (1940).
  • Kawakami Mitsugu, and Yoshikawa Matsu, eds. 1979. Zenshū no bijutsu: zen'in to teien. Nihon bijutsu zenshū. Tōkyō: Gakushū kenkyūsha.
  • Kobayashi Taiichirō. 1954. "Kōsō sūhai to shōzō no geijutsu — zuitō kōsōzō joron." Bukkyō geijutsu 23: 3-36.
  • Komazawa daigaku. 1985. Zengaku daijiten. Tōkyō: Taishūkan. Originally published in 3 vols., 1978.
  • Kosugi Kazuo. 1934. "Rikuchō jidai no buttō ni okeru busshari no anchi ni tsuite." Tōyō gakuhō (3): 417-467.
  • _____. 1937. "Nikushinzō oyobi yuikaizō no kenkyū." Tōyō gakuhō 24 (3): 405-436.
  • Kyōtō National Museum (Kyōtō Kokuritsu Hakubutsukan). 1981. Zen to bijutsu. Bukkyō bijutsu kenkyū, Ueno kinenzaidan joseikenkyūkai hōkokusho 10. Kyōtō: Kyōtō National Museum.
  • _____. 1983. Zen no bijutsu. Kyōtō : Hōzōkan.
  • Lamotte, Etienne. 1949-80. Le Traité de la grande vertu de sagesse de Nāgārjuna (Mahāprajñāpāramitāśāstra). 5 vols. Louvain-la Neuve: Institut Orientaliste.
  • _____. 1976. The Teaching of Vimalakīrti (Vimalakīrtinirdeśa-sūtra). Rendered into English (from French) by Sara Boin. London: Pali Text Society.
  • Lee, Sherman E., Michael R. Cunningham, and James T. Ulak. 1983. Reflections of Reality in Japanese Art. Cleveland: The Cleveland Museum of Art in Cooperation with Indiana University Press.
  • Loewe, Michael. 1979. Ways to Paradise: The Chinese Quest for Immortality. London: George Allen & Unwin.
  • McRae, John Robert. 1986. The Northern School and the Formation of Early Ch'an Buddhism. Kuroda Institute Studies in East Asian Buddhism 3. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
  • Mather, Richard B., trans. 1976. Shih-shuo Hsin-yü: A New Account of Tales of the World, by Liu I-ch'ing with commentary by Liu Chün. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
  • Matsushita Ryūshō, Ōta Hirotarō, and Tanaka Seidai. 1967. Zendera to sekitei. Genshoku Ninon no bijutsu 10. Tōkyō: Shōgakkan.
  • Matsuura Hidemitsu. 1976. Zenshū kojitsu sonzō no kenkyū. Tōkyō: Sankibō busshorin.
  • Mochizuki Shinkō, ed. 1933-36. Bukkyō daijiten. Rev. and enlarged edition in 10 vols. Tōkyō: Sekai seiten kankō kyōkai, 1954-63.
  • Mori, Hisashi. 1977. Japanese Portrait Sculpture. Japanese Arts Library no. 2. Translated and adapted by W. Chie Ishibashi. Tōkyō: Kodansha International Ltd. and Shibundo. Originally published in Japanese under the title Shōzō chōkoku, vol. 10 in the series, Nihon no bijutsu. Tōkyō: Shibundō, 1967.
  • Morohashi Tetsuji. 1955-60. Dai kan-wa jiten. 13 vols. Tōkyō: Taishūkan shoten.
  • Mujaku Dōchû. 1909. Zenrin shōkisen. Kyōtō: Kaiba shoin.
  • _____. 1979. Chokushū Hyakujō shingi sakei. Vols. 8 and part of 8 of the Zengaku sōsho, ed. Yanagida Seizan. Kyōtō: Chūbun shuppansha.
  • Nagao Gadjin. 1987. Shō daijō ron: wayaku to chūkai ge. Tōkyō: Kōdansha.
  • Nara National Museum (Nara Kokuritsu Hakubutsukan). 1986. Zensō to bokuseki — Shōichi kokushi o megutte. Exhibition catalogue (Sept. 9-Oct. 10).
  • Needham, Joseph. 1974. Science and Civilisation in China. Vol. 5, part 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Nishikawa Kyōtarō, and Emily J. Sano. 1982. The Great Age of Japanese Buddhist Sculpture AD 600-1300. Fort Worth and New York: Kimbell Art Museum and the Japan Society.
  • Reischauer, Edwin O. 1955. Ennin's Diary: The Record of a Pilgrimage to China in Search of the Law. New York: The Ronald Press Company.
  • Sakakibara Satoru. 1985. "Shōkokujibon 'ressozō' to Tan'yū ichimon." Kobijutsu 76: 60-75.
  • Schafer, Edward H. 1977. Pacing the Void: T'ang Approaches to the Stars. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • _____. 1978-9 "A T'ang Taoist Mirror." Early China 4: 56-59.
  • Schopen, Gregory. 1987. "Burial Ad Sanctos and the Physical Presence of the Buddha in Early Indian Buddhism: A Study in the Archeology of Religions." Religion 17: 193-225.
  • Sekiguchi Shindai. 1967. Daruma no kenkyū. Tokyo: Iwanami shoten.
  • Sharf, Robert H. 1989. "Being Buddha: A Performative Approach to Ch'an Enlightenment." Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Religion, Anaheim, 20 November 1989.
  • _____. 1991. "The Treasure Store Treatise (Pao-tsang lun) and the Sinification of Buddhism in Eighth-Century China." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan.
  • _____. 1992 "The Idolization of Enlightenment: On the Mummification of Ch'an Masters in Medieval China." History of Religions 32 (1): 1-31.
  • Shi Lan. 1988. "Xu Zhang ho ta de 'Song jiang bang yan tu'." Meishu yanjiu 1988 (3): 69-73.
  • Shimada Shūjirō, and Iriya Yoshitaka, eds. 1987. Zenrin gasan — chūsei suibokuga o yomu. Tōkyō: Mainichi shinbunsha.
  • Soper, Alexander. 1949. "The First Two Laws of Hsieh Ho." The Far Eastern Quarterly 8 (4): 412-423.
  • Spiro, Audrey. 1988. "New Light on Gu Kaizhi." Journal of Chinese Religions 16: 1-17.
  • Stanley-Baker, Joan. 1984. Japanese Art. London: Thames and Hudson.
  • Tambiah, Stanley Jeyaraja. 1984. The Buddhist Saints of the Forest and the Cult of Amulets: A Study in Charisma, Hagiography, Sectarianism, and Millennial Buddhism. Cambridge Studies in Social Anthropology 49. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press.
  • Tanaka Ichimatsu. 1953. "Chūbō oshō zō." Kokka 734 (May): 136, 145, pl. 9.
  • Taniguchi Tetsuo. 1984. "Zenshū rokuso inzō ni tsuite — Bungo Enfukujibon o chūshin ni." Bukkyō geijutsul 55: 11-37.
  • Thurman, Robert A. F., trans. 1976. The Holy Teaching of Vimalakīrti: A Mahāyāna Scripture. University Park and London: The Pennsylvania State University Press.
  • Tsukamoto Zenryū. 1974. Gisho Shaku-Rōshi no kenkyu. Vol. 1 of Tsukamoto Zenryū chosaku shū. Tōkyō: Daitō shuppansha. Originally published in Kyoto: Bukkyō bunka kenkyūjo shuppanbu, 1961.
  • –––––. 1975. "Sōjidai no zunnan shikin tokudo no seido." In Tsukamoto Zenryū chosakushū, vol. 5. Tōkyō: Daitō shuppansha. Originally published in 1941 in Shina bukkyōdshigaku 5(1).
  • Warner, Langdon. 1936. The Craft of the Japanese Sculptor. New York: McFarlane, Warde, McFarlane, and the Japan Society of New York.
  • _____. 1964. Japanese Sculpture of the Tempyo Period: Masterpieces of the Eighth Century. Ed. James Marshall Plumer. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Watt, James C. Y. 1990. The Arts of Ancient China. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  • Wayman, Alex. 1957. "Contributions Regarding the Thirty-two Characteristics of the Great Person." In Liebenthal Festschrift, ed. Kshitis Roy (Sino-Indian Studies 5, parts 3-4), 243-260. Santiniketan: Visvabharati.
  • Wechsler, Howard J. 1985. Offerings of Jade and Silk: Ritual and Symbol in the Legitimation of the T'ang Dynasty. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Wilhelm, Richard. 1967. The I Ching or Book of Changes. Third edition. Bollingen Series 19. English translation of German original by Cary F. Baynes. Princeton: Princeton University Press. First edition, 1950.
  • Yampolsky, Philip B. 1967. The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch: The Text of the Tun-huang Manuscript with Translation, Introduction, and Notes. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Yanagida Seizan. 1954. "Tōshi no keifu." Nihon bukkyōgakkai nenpō 19 (April): 1-46.
  • –––––. 1963. "Denhōbōki to sono sakusha." Zengaku kenkyū 53 (July): 45-71.
  • _____. 1967. Shoki zenshū shisho no kenkyū. Kyōtō: Hōzōkan.
  • _____. 1971. Shoki no zenshi I. Zen no goroku 2. Tōkyō: Chikuma shobō.
  • _____. 1984a. Sodōshū sakuin. 3 vols. Kyōto: Kyōto daigaku jinbun kagaku kenkyūjo.
  • _____. 1984b. Sodōshū Zengaku sōsho 4. Kyōto: Chūbun shuppansha.
  • Yü Chien-hua, ed. 1964. Hsüan-ho hua-p'u. Beijing: Jen-min mei-shu.
  • Zurcher, E. 1959. The Buddhist Conquest of China: The Spread and Adaptation of Buddhism in Early Medieval China. 2 vols. Leiden: E. J. Brill.
  • _____.1964 "Recent Studies on Chinese Painting." Toung Pao 51: 377-422.